Issue analysis impact mfecane cape colony

Get Full Essay Get access to this section to get all help you need with your essay and educational issues. These individuals were the Nguni- speaking and Sotho- speaking people of Southern Africa. The article points out how this movement brought upon major changes to the way these groups lived and the outcomes in the end.

Issue analysis impact mfecane cape colony

Ndebele home With an Introduction by Milton Issue analysis impact mfecane cape colony The Ndebele of Zimbabwe, who today constitute about twenty percent of the population of the country, have a very rich and heroic history. It is partly this rich history that constitutes a resource that reinforces their memories and sense of a particularistic identity and distinctive nation within a predominantly Shona speaking country.

It is also partly later developments ranging from the colonial violence of and Imfazo 1 and Imfazo 2 ; Ndebele evictions from their land under the direction of the Rhodesian colonial settler state; recurring droughts in Matabeleland; ethnic forms taken by Zimbabwean nationalism; urban events happening around the city of Bulawayo; the state-orchestrated and ethnicised violence of the s targeting the Ndebele community, which became known as Gukurahundi; and other factors like perceptions and realities of frustrated economic development in Matabeleland together with ever-present threats of repetition of Gukurahundi-style violence—that have contributed to the shaping and re-shaping of Ndebele identity within Zimbabwe.

Issue analysis impact mfecane cape colony

The story of how the Ndebele ended up in Zimbabwe is explained in terms of the impact of the Mfecane—a nineteenth century revolution marked by the collapse of the earlier political formations of Mthethwa, Ndwandwe, and Ngwane kingdoms replaced by new ones of the Zulu under Shaka, the Sotho under Moshweshwe, and others built out of Mfecane refugees and asylum seekers.

The revolution was also characterized by violence and migration that saw some Nguni and Sotho communities burst asunder and fragmenting into fleeing groups such as the Ndebele under Mzilikazi Khumalo, the Kololo under Sebetwane, the Shangaans under Soshangane, the Ngoni under Zwangendaba, and the Swazi under Queen Nyamazana.

Out of these migrations emerged new political formations like the Ndebele state, that eventually inscribed itself by a combination of coercion and persuasion in the southwestern part of the Zimbabwean plateau in The migration and eventual settlement of the Ndebele in Zimbabwe is also part of the historical drama that became intertwined with another dramatic event of the migration of the Boers from Cape Colony into the interior in what is generally referred to as the Great Trek, that began in It was military clashes with the Boers that forced Mzilikazi and his followers to migrate across the Limpopo River into Zimbabwe.

The warrior identity suited Ndebele hegemonic ideologies.

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Within this discourse, the Shona portrayed themselves as victims of Ndebele raiders who constantly went away with their livestock and women—disrupting their otherwise orderly and peaceful lives. A mythology thus permeates the whole spectrum of Ndebele history, fed by distortions and exaggerations of Ndebele military prowess, the nature of Ndebele governance institutions, and the general way of life.

My interest is primarily in unpacking and exploding the mythology within Ndebele historiography while at the same time making new sense of Ndebele hegemonic ideologies.

My intention is to inform the broader debate on pre-colonial African systems of governance, the conduct of politics, social control, and conceptions of human security.

These issues are examined across the pre-colonial times up to the mid-twentieth century, a time when power resided with the early Rhodesian colonial state. I touch lightly on the question of whether the violent transition from an Ndebele hegemony to a Rhodesia settler colonial hegemony was in reality a transition from one flawed and coercive regime to another.

Broadly speaking this book is an intellectual enterprise in understanding political and social dynamics that made pre-colonial Ndebele states tick; in particular, how power and authority were broadcast and exercised, including the nature of state-society relations.

What emerges from the book is that while the pre-colonial Ndebele state began as an imposition on society of Khumalo and Zansi hegemony, the state simultaneously pursued peaceful and ideological ways of winning the consent of the governed.

Within the Ndebele state, power was constructed around a small Khumalo clan ruling in alliance with some dominant Nguni Zansi houses over a heterogeneous nation on the Zimbabwean plateau. The key question is how this small Khumalo group in alliance with the Zansi managed to extend their power across a majority of people of non-Nguni stock.

Earlier historians over-emphasized military coercion as though violence was ever enough as a pillar of nation-building. In this book I delve deeper into a historical interrogation of key dynamics of state formation and nation-building, hegemony construction and inscription, the style of governance, the creation of human rights spaces and openings, and human security provision, in search of those attributes that made the Ndebele state tick and made it survive until it was destroyed by the violent forces of Rhodesian settler colonialism.

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The book takes a broad revisionist approach involving systematic revisiting of earlier scholarly works on the Ndebele experiences in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries and critiquing them.

A critical eye is cast on interpretation and making sense of key Ndebele political and social concepts and ideas that do not clearly emerge in existing literature.

Throughout the book, the Ndebele historical experiences are consistently discussed in relation to a broad range of historiography and critical social theories of hegemony and human rights, and post-colonial discourses are used as tools of analysis.

Empirically and thematically, the book focuses on the complex historical processes involving the destruction of the autonomy of the decentralized Khumalo clans, their dispersal from their coastal homes in Nguniland, and the construction of Khumalo hegemony that happened in tandem with the formation of the Ndebele state in the midst of the Mfecane revolution.

It further delves deeper into the examination of the expansion and maturing of the Ndebele State into a heterogeneous settled nation north of the Limpopo River. The colonial encounter with the Ndebele state dating back to the s culminating in the imperialist violence of the s and the subsequent colonization of the Ndebele in is also subjected to consistent analysis in this book.

What is evident is that the broad spectrum of Ndebele history was shot through with complex ambiguities and contradictions that have so far not been subjected to serious scholarly analysis.

These ambiguities include tendencies and practices of domination versus resistance as the Ndebele rebelled against both pre-colonial African despots like Zwide and Shaka as well as against Rhodesian settler colonial conquest.

The Ndebele fought to achieve domination, material security, political autonomy, cultural and political independence, social justice, human dignity, and tolerant governance even within their state in the face of a hegemonic Ndebele ruling elite that sought to maintain its political dominance and material privileges through a delicate combination of patronage, accountability, exploitation, and limited coercion.

The overarching analytical perspective is centred on the problem of the relation between coercion and consent during different phases of Ndebele history up to their encounter with colonialism.These pages contain the complete rough draft manuscript of the new book Generational Dynamics for Historians, written by John J.

The Impact Of The Mfecane On The Cape Colony | Essay Example

caninariojana.com text is fully copyrighted. You may copy or print out this material for your own use, but not for distribution to others. Apr 19,  · In the interwar period, Portuguese hygienists, agronomists and colonial administrators began to advocate the resettlement of Angola's rural native population into model villages as the ideal solution to many of the colony's hygienic, economic and societal problems.

Issue Analysis: The impact of the Mfecane on the Cape Colony E.K.

Cape Colony 20 Dutch colony established at Cape of Good Hope in initially to provide a coastal station for the Dutch seaborne empire; by settlements had expanded sufficiently to come into conflict with Bantus. Issue Analysis: The clashing of the Mfecane on the Cape Colony         E.K. Mashingaidzes name, The impact of the Mfecane on the Cape Colony, dealt with the impact that the movement had on the lives of those include in the movement. Apr 19,  · In the interwar period, Portuguese hygienists, agronomists and colonial administrators began to advocate the resettlement of Angola's rural native population into model villages as the ideal solution to many of the colony's hygienic, economic and societal problems.

Mashingaidze's article, "The impact of the Mfecane on the Cape Colony,"Ã Â dealt with the impact that the movement had on the lives of those included in the movement.3/5(1).

Disinvestment (or divestment) from South Africa was first advocated in the s, in protest of South Africa's system of apartheid, but was not implemented on a significant scale until the caninariojana.com disinvestment campaign, after being realized in federal legislation enacted in by the United States, is credited by some as pressuring the South African Government to embark on.

The Impact Of The Mfecane On The Cape Colony Essay Sample

Disinvestment (or divestment) from South Africa was first advocated in the s, in protest of South Africa's system of apartheid, but was not implemented on a significant scale until the caninariojana.com disinvestment campaign, after being realized in federal legislation enacted in by the United States, is credited by some as pressuring the South African Government to embark on.

Issue Analysis: The impact of the Mfecane on the Cape Colony E.K.

Issue analysis impact mfecane cape colony

Mashingaidze's article, "The impact of the Mfecane on the Cape Colony," dealt with the impact that the movement had on the lives of those included in the movement.

The Ndebele Nation : Rozenberg Quarterly