Feminization biology There are also sex-specific side effects of AAS. Development of breast tissue in males, a condition called gynecomastia which is usually caused by high levels of circulating estradiolmay arise because of increased conversion of testosterone to estradiol by the enzyme aromatase. This side-effect is temporary; the size of the testicles usually returns to normal within a few weeks of discontinuing AAS use as normal production of sperm resumes. Virilization Female-specific side effects include increases in body hairpermanent deepening of the voice, enlarged clitorisand temporary decreases in menstrual cycles.
The following is an attempt to separate fact from fiction.
The availability of video games has led to an epidemic of youth violence. According to federal crime statistics, the rate of juvenile violent crime in the United States is at a year low. Researchers find that people serving time for violent crimes typically consume less media before committing their crimes than the average person in the general population.
It's true that young offenders who have committed school shootings in America have also been game players. But young people in general are more likely to be gamers — 90 percent of boys and 40 percent of girls play. The overwhelming majority of kids who play do NOT commit antisocial acts.
According to a U. Surgeon General's report, the strongest risk factors for school shootings centered on mental stability and the quality of home life, not media exposure. The moral panic over violent video games is doubly harmful. It has led adult authorities to be more suspicious and hostile to many kids who already feel cut off from the system.
It also misdirects energy away from eliminating the actual causes of youth violence and allows problems to continue to fester. Scientific evidence links violent game play with youth aggression. Claims like this are based on the work of researchers who represent one relatively narrow school of research, "media effects.
But most of those studies are inconclusive and many have been criticized on methodological grounds. In these studies, media images are removed from any narrative context. Subjects are asked to engage with content that they would not normally consume and may not understand.
Finally, the laboratory context is radically different from the environments where games would normally be played. Most studies found a correlation, not a causal relationship, which means the research could simply show that aggressive people like aggressive entertainment.
That's why the vague term "links" is used here.
If there is a consensus emerging around this research, it is that violent video games may be one risk factor - when coupled with other more immediate, real-world influences — which can contribute to anti-social behavior.
But no research has found that video games are a primary factor or that violent video game play could turn an otherwise normal person into a killer. Children are the primary market for video games. While most American kids do play video games, the center of the video game market has shifted older as the first generation of gamers continues to play into adulthood.
Already 62 percent of the console market and 66 percent of the PC market is age 18 or older. The game industry caters to adult tastes.
Meanwhile, a sizable number of parents ignore game ratings because they assume that games are for kids. One quarter of children ages 11 to 16 identify an M-Rated Mature Content game as among their favorites.
Clearly, more should be done to restrict advertising and marketing that targets young consumers with mature content, and to educate parents about the media choices they are facing.
But parents need to share some of the responsibility for making decisions about what is appropriate for their children. The news on this front is not all bad. The Federal Trade Commission has found that 83 percent of game purchases for underage consumers are made by parents or by parents and children together.
Almost no girls play computer games. Historically, the video game market has been predominantly male. However, the percentage of women playing games has steadily increased over the past decade.
Women now slightly outnumber men playing Web-based games. Spurred by the belief that games were an important gateway into other kinds of digital literacy, efforts were made in the mids to build games that appealed to girls.
More recent games such as The Sims were huge crossover successes that attracted many women who had never played games before. Given the historic imbalance in the game market and among people working inside the game industrythe presence of sexist stereotyping in games is hardly surprising.
Yet it's also important to note that female game characters are often portrayed as powerful and independent. In his book Killing Monsters, Gerard Jones argues that young girls often build upon these representations of strong women warriors as a means of building up their self confidence in confronting challenges in their everyday lives.
Because games are used to train soldiers to kill, they have the same impact on the kids who play them.Aug 08, · In another study published this week, scientists looked at both the negative and positive effects of video games.
One hour or less of video game play per day is associated with children and. Aug 27, · In other words, video games are comparable to other kinds of imaginative play.
And play, most folks tend to agree, is of vital . The effects of violent video games are trivially small. Facts: Meta-analyses reveal that violent video game effect sizes are larger than the effect of second hand tobacco smoke on lung cancer, the effect of lead exposure to I.Q.
scores in children, and calcium intake on bone mass. Frequently in my early teaching career, I taught a computer literacy course.
In this course I taught my student that a computer is a machine for the input, storage, processing, and output of information. 90 The Impact Of Screen Media On Children: A Eurovision For Parliament The Impact Of Screen Media On Children: A Eurovision For Parliament Media Violence Effects hether exposure of children or adults to violent media is a cause of aggression and violent behavior has been one of the most intensely debated issues in criminal justice and the broader populace.
Debates about the effects of media ranging from books to video games have a long history (Trend, ). Even religious.