Usages[ edit ] Strategy consultants occasionally use Porter's five forces framework when making a qualitative evaluation of a firm 's strategic position. However, for most consultants, the framework is only a starting point.
Photobioreactor from glass tubes Design of a race-way open pond commonly used for algal culture Algae grow much faster than food crops, and can produce hundreds of times more oil per unit area than conventional crops such as rapeseed, palms, soybeans, or jatropha.
Maximum use of existing agriculture processes and hardware is the goal. The problem for a closed system is finding a cheap source of sterile CO 2. Several experimenters have found the CO 2 from a smokestack works well for growing algae.
Running a PBR is more difficult than using an open pond, and costlier, but may provide a higher level of control and productivity. Open pond[ edit ] Open pond systems consist of simple in ground ponds, which are often mixed by a paddle wheel.
These systems have low power requirements, operating costs, and capital costs when compared to closed loop photobioreactor systems. Nearly all commercial algae producers for high value algal products utilize open pond systems.
ATS mimics the algal turfs of a natural coral reef by taking in nutrient rich water from waste streams or natural water sources, and pulsing it over a sloped surface. Once the algae has been established, it can be harvested every 5—15 days,  and can produce 18 metric tons of algal biomass per hectare per year.
As such, the lipid content of the algae in an ATS system is usually lower, which makes it more suitable for a fermented fuel product, such as ethanol, methane, or butanol.
The first advantage is documented higher productivity over open pond systems. The third is the elimination of contamination issues due to the reliance on naturally occurring algae species. One of the solutions is to use filter feeders to "eat" them.
Improved animals can provide both foods and fuels. An alternative method to extract the algae is to grow the algae with specific types of fungi. This causes bio-flocculation of the algae which allows for easier extraction. For example, the extracted triglycerides are reacted with methanol to create biodiesel via transesterification.
Other outputs include clean water, fuel gas and nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. Algal nutrient solutions Nutrients like nitrogen Nphosphorus Pand potassium Kare important for plant growth and are essential parts of fertilizer.
Silica and iron, as well as several trace elements, may also be considered important marine nutrients as the lack of one can limit the growth of, or productivity in, an area. Each tonne of microalgae absorbs two tonnes of CO 2.
Scottish Bioenergy, who run the project, sell the microalgae as high value, protein-rich food for fisheries. In the future, they will use the algae residues to produce renewable energy through anaerobic digestion.
Various sources of nitrogen can be used as a nutrient for algae, with varying capacities. Nitrate was found to be the preferred source of nitrogen, in regards to amount of biomass grown. Urea is a readily available source that shows comparable results, making it an economical substitute for nitrogen source in large scale culturing of algae.
In one study  nitrogen deprivation for 72 hours caused the total fatty acid content on a per cell basis to increase by 2. It is vital for the lipid content in algal cells to be of high enough quantity, while maintaining adequate cell division times, so parameters that can maximize both are under investigation.
Wastewater treatment facility A possible nutrient source is waste water from the treatment of sewage, agricultural, or flood plain run-off, all currently major pollutants and health risks.Find News from July on ConsumerAffairs. Our list of News includes automotive, appliance, food, technology, clothing, and more.
How To Overcome The Threat Of Substitutes. Substitute products or services can satisfy the same customer needs or can give similar benefits which may depend on the perception levels of the customer or on the nature of cross elasticity of demand and these products or .
For more practical detail the behavior you wish to continue indefinitely must be defined. For example: Environmental sustainability is the ability to maintain rates of renewable resource harvest, pollution creation, and non-renewable resource depletion that can be continued indefinitely..
Economic sustainability is the ability to support a defined level of economic production indefinitely. Threat of substitutes The threat of substitutes means that a product identical or similar with other product which same characteristics product we found easily. The industry is less attractive when the threat of substitutes is high.
In this case, we need to produce different product compared to the other firm to attract consumer to buy [ ]. How To Overcome The Threat Of Substitutes. Substitute products or services can satisfy the same customer needs or can give similar benefits which may depend on the perception levels of the customer or on the nature of cross elasticity of demand and these products or .
Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been used in a variety of products for many decades. It is well worth repeating that one of the more dangerous variants of PFASs that was formerly found in Teflon until it was replaced by a similar substance which may also be toxic.